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Letting the sunshine in may kill dust-dwelling bacteria

Allowing sunlight in through windows can kill bacteria that live in dust.

Genome sequencing found feasible and informative for pediatric cancer treatment

Comprehensive genetic testing of tumors and non-cancerous tissue from pediatric cancer patients is a feasible and clinically useful approach that can guide patient care, according to new findings.

Ancient Andean genomes show distinct adaptations to farming and altitude

Ancient populations in the Andes of Peru adapted to their high-altitude environment and the introduction of agriculture in ways distinct from other global populations that faced similar circumstances.

Experts raise safety concerns about cardboard baby boxes

Cardboard baby boxes are being promoted for infant sleep as a safe alternative to more traditional cots, bassinets, or Moses baskets, without any evidence in place, warn experts.

US tornado frequency shifting eastward from Great Plains

A new study finds that over the past four decades, tornado frequency has increased over a large swath of the Midwest and Southeast and decreased in portions of the central and southern Great Plains, a region traditionally associated with Tornado Alley.

Arctic greening thaws permafrost, boosts runoff

A new collaborative study has investigated Arctic shrub-snow interactions to obtain a better understanding of the far north's tundra and vast permafrost system. Incorporating extensive in situ observations, scientists tested their theories with a novel 3D computer model and confirmed that shrubs can lead to significant degradation of the permafrost layer that has remained frozen for tens of thousands of years. These interactions are driving increases in discharges of fresh water into rivers, lakes and oceans.

Largest autism sequencing study to date yields 102 genes associated with ASD

In the largest genetic sequencing study of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) to date, researchers have identified 102 genes associated with ASD, and report significant progress toward teasing apart the genes associated with ASD from those associated with intellectual disability and developmental delay, conditions between which there is often overlap.

Simple test may help predict long-term outcome after stroke

A simple test taken within a week of a stroke may help predict how well people will have recovered up to three years later.

Eliminating emissions in India and China could add years to people's lives

In a recent study, researchers wanted to know how replacing coal-fired powerplants in China and India with clean, renewable energy could benefit human health and save lives in the future. The researchers found that eliminating harmful emissions from powerplants could save an estimated annual 15 million years of life in China and 11 million years of life in India.

A 150-year-old drug might improve radiation therapy for cancer

A drug first identified 150 years ago and used as a smooth-muscle relaxant might make tumors more sensitive to radiation therapy. Researchers found that the drug papaverine inhibits the respiration of mitochondria, the oxygen-consuming and energy-making components of cells, and sensitizes model tumors to radiation. They found that the drug does not affect the radiation sensitivity of well-oxygenated normal tissues.

Conceptual framework to study role of exercise in multiple sclerosis

Researchers have proposed a conceptual framework for examining the relationship between exercise and adaptive neuroplasticity in the population with multiple sclerosis (MS).

First GWAS analysis of 'type 1.5 diabetes' reveals links between immune and metabolic disease

Scientists who performed the largest-ever genetic study of a puzzling type of adult-onset diabetes have uncovered new connections to the two major types of diabetes, offering intriguing insights into more accurate diagnosis and better treatment. Latent automimmune diabetes in adults (LADA) is a relatively common disorder that shares features of type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes.

How does brain structure influence performance on language tasks?

The architecture of each person's brain is unique, and differences may influence how quickly people can complete various cognitive tasks. But how neuroanatomy impacts performance is largely an open question. To learn more, scientists are developing a new tool -- computational models of the brain -- to simulate how the structure of the brain may impact brain activity and, ultimately, human behavior.

Stem cell proliferation is controlled directly by nervous system, scientists find

A new study demonstrates that stem cell proliferation is directly controlled by the autonomic nervous system.

Wind farms and reducing hurricane precipitation

New research reveals an unexpected benefit of large-scale offshore wind farms: the ability to lessen precipitation from hurricanes.

Massive organism is crashing on our watch

Researchers have conducted the first complete assessment of the Pando aspen clone and the results show continuing deterioration of this 'forest of one tree.' While a portion of the famed grove is recovery nicely as a result of previous restoration, the majority of Pando (Latin for 'I Spread') is diminishing by attrition.

Life on the floor of the Arctic Ocean, with rigor and in detail

In an extensive and rigorous study of animal life on the Central Arctic Ocean floor, researchers have shown that water depth and food availability influence the species composition, density, and biomass of benthic communities.

Immune culprits linked to inflammation and bone loss in gum disease identified

An unhealthy population of microbes in the mouth triggers specialized immune cells that inflame and destroy tissues, leading to the type of bone loss associated with a severe form of gum disease, according to a new study in mice and humans. The findings could have implications for new treatment approaches for the condition.

Vast leukemia dataset could help researchers match therapies to patients

Data on the molecular makeup and drug sensitivity of hundreds of patient samples could accelerate progress against the aggressive blood cancer acute myeloid leukemia.

Virtual reality can help make people more compassionate compared to other media

Researchers found that people who underwent a virtual reality experience, called 'Becoming Homeless,' were more empathetic toward the homeless and more likely to sign a petition in support of affordable housing than other study participants.

Picture perfect: Researchers gain clearest ever image of Ebola virus protein

Near-atomic resolution model of viral protein complex brings clearer understanding of the viral mechanics.

Dandelion seeds reveal newly discovered form of natural flight

A study of dandelion seeds in motion has revealed a form of flight not seen before, and explains why the plant is among nature's best fliers.

Pupil's brain recognizes the perfect teacher

Human and avian youngsters learn behaviors by imitating adults. But learners are selective in who they copy, and scientists don't understand how they choose the right teacher. Young male zebra finches must learn to copy the song of an adult male to mate, but juveniles won't imitate songs played through a loudspeaker or sung by other species of birds. New findings show how the juvenile birds identify the right teacher.

Combining genetic and sun exposure data improves skin cancer risk estimates

By combining data on individuals' lifetime sun exposure and their genetics, researchers can generate improved predictions of their risk of skin cancer.

Unprecedented look at electron: Size limit for undiscovered subatomic particles determined

A new study suggests that many theorized heavy particles, if they exist at all, do not have the properties needed to explain the predominance of matter over antimatter in the universe. If confirmed, the findings would force significant revisions to several prominent theories posed as alternatives to the Standard Model of particle physics, which was developed in the early 1970s.

Arctic ice sets speed limit for major ocean current

Scientists have now identified a key mechanism, which they call the 'ice-ocean governor,' that controls how fast the Beaufort Gyre spins and how much fresh water it stores. Researchers report that the Arctic's ice cover essentially sets a speed limit on the gyre's spin.

Bacterioplankton: Taking their vitamins

New research finds that more bacterioplankton utilize vitamin B1 or B1 precursors from their environment than synthesize their own. The researchers also found that B1 availability can directly limit bacterioplankton growth, which could have larger impacts on aquatic microbial food webs, as well as energy and nutrient exchange.

Substantial changes in air pollution across China during 2015 to 2017

The first detailed analysis of air pollution trends in China reveals a 20 per cent drop in concentrations of particulate pollution over the last three years (2015-2017).

Bone cell response to mechanical force is balance of injury and repair

Scientists have revealed the intricate process that bone cells use to repair themselves after mechanical injury.

Astronomers find a cosmic Titan in the early universe

Astronomers have discovered a titanic structure in the early universe, just two billion years after the Big Bang. This galaxy proto-supercluster, nicknamed Hyperion, is the largest and most massive structure yet found at such a remote time and distance.

Bursting the clouds for better communication

We live in an age of long-range information. Research is turning towards the use of lasers which have several advantages. However, this new technology faces a major problem: clouds. Due to their density, clouds stop the laser beams and scramble the transfer of information. Researchers have now devised an ultra-hot laser that creates a temporary hole in the cloud, which lets the laser beam containing the information pass through.

3D-printed lithium-ion batteries

Electric vehicles and most electronic devices, such as cell phones and laptop computers, are powered by lithium-ion batteries. Until now, manufacturers have had to design their devices around the size and shape of commercially available batteries. But researchers have developed a new method to 3D print lithium-ion batteries in virtually any shape.

Moss rapidly detects, tracks air pollutants in real time

Moss, one of the world's oldest plants, is surprisingly in tune with the atmosphere around it. Now scientists report that they have found a simple and inexpensive way to detect air pollutants, specifically sulfur dioxide, in real time based on subtle changes in moss leaves. The discovery could rapidly alert authorities to potentially dangerous alterations in air quality using a sustainable, natural plant sensor.

Taking steps toward a wearable artificial kidney

There just aren't enough kidney transplants available for the millions of people with renal failure. Aside from a transplant, the only alternative for patients is to undergo regular dialysis sessions to clear harmful cellular waste from their bodies. Now, scientists report a new urea sorbent that could accelerate progress toward the development of a lightweight, wearable artificial kidney with the potential to make dialysis more convenient, comfortable and effective.

World Heritage Sites threatened by rising sea levels

In the Mediterranean region, there are numerous UNESCO World Heritage Sites in low-lying coastal areas. In the course of the 21st century, these sites will increasingly be at risk by storm surges and increasing coastal erosion due to sea-level rise.

Selfish people have fewer children and earn less money

What happens to those who behave unselfishly and make sacrifices for the sake of others? According to an interdisciplinary study, unselfish people tend both to have more children and to receive higher salaries, in comparison to more selfish people.

Regulating microglial activity may reduce inflammation in neurodegenerative diseases

A group of investigators is proposing that targeting immune checkpoints -- molecules that regulate the activity of the immune system -- in immune cells called microglia could reduce the inflammatory aspects of important neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and ALS.

Double dust ring test could spot migrating planets

Astrophysicist now have a way of finally telling whether newly forming planets are migrating within the disc of dust and gas that typically surrounds stars or whether they are simply staying put in the same orbit around the star.

New imaging tool captures how sound moves through the chinchilla ear

Researchers have developed a new device that can be used to visualize how sound-induced vibrations travel through the ear.

Breastfeeding protects infants from antibiotic-resistant bacteria

A new study shows that infants that are breastfed for at least six months have less antibiotic-resistant bacteria in their gut compared with babies breastfed for a shorter time. On the other hand, antibiotic use by mothers increases the number of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in infants.

Going to bed with your ex might not be as bad you think

Conventional wisdom holds that people set themselves up for even greater heartache when they jump into bed with their ex-partner after a breakup. However, according to new findings, having sex with an ex doesn't seem to hinder moving on after the breakup. This is true even for those who continue to pine for their ex.

Attending the 'best' high school may yield benefits and risks for students

Parents often go to great lengths to ensure that their children attend top schools, surrounded by high-achieving peers who often come from advantaged backgrounds. But data collected from individuals over a span of 50 years suggests that these aspects of selective schools aren't uniformly beneficial to students' educational and professional outcomes in the following decades.

A curious branch of plankton evolution

Planktonic foraminifera -- tiny, shelled organisms that float in the sea -- left behind one of the most complete fossil records of evolutionary history in deep sea deposits. Consequently, evolutionists have a relatively sturdy grasp on when and how new lineages arose. However, a new study reveals that one lineage evolved much more rapidly than everyone predicted, and researchers are looking beyond Darwin's original theories of gradual evolution to understand why.

Blue crab baby sizes and shapes influence their survival

Like people, blue crabs aren't all the same sizes and shapes. Now scientists have discovered substantial differences in the body structures of larval crab siblings and among larvae from different mothers. And that can mean the difference between an early death and survival into adulthood for this important commercial and recreational species.

Plant hormone makes space farming a possibility

With scarce nutrients and weak gravity, growing potatoes on the Moon or on other planets seems unimaginable. But the plant hormone strigolactone could make it possible, plant biologists have shown. The hormone supports the symbiosis between fungi and plant roots, thus encouraging plants' growth -- even under the challenging conditions found in space.

Societies can remain distinct despite migration

Countries around the world can retain distinct cultures despite migration, new research shows.

Novel switching valve to receive more semen in a sex-role reversed cave insect

The female of a sex-role reversed cave insect species Neotrogla has evolved a switching valve to receive more semen during mating, when a penis-like structure in the female anchors in the male 'vagina.'

Electrical enhancement: Engineers speed up electrons in semiconductors

Researchers have sped up the movement of electrons in organic semiconductor films by two to three orders of magnitude. The speedier electronics could lead to improved solar power and transistor use across the world, according to the scientists.

Participating in sports during childhood may have long-term benefits for bone health

Participation in organized sport during childhood and adolescence is associated with bone mass at 20 years of age.

Winter ticks killing moose at alarming rate

Researchers have found that the swell of infestations of winter ticks -- which attach themselves to moose during the fall and feed throughout the winter -- is the primary cause of an unprecedented 70 percent death rate of calves over a three-year period.

Supermassive black holes and supercomputers

The universe's deep past is beyond the reach of even the mighty Hubble Space Telescope. But a new review explains how creation of the first stars and galaxies is nevertheless being mapped in detail, with the aid of computer simulations and theoretical models -- and how a new generation of supercomputers and software is being built that will fill in the gaps.

Controlling organic semiconductor band gaps by electron-acceptor fluorination

Researchers synthesized a fluorinated electron-acceptor for use in organic semiconductors. The high electronegativity of the fluorine substituents enhanced the electron-accepting properties of the widely used electron-acceptor. The power conversion efficiency of a thin film solar cell based on the fluorinated product was shown to be significantly higher than that of a cell containing an unmodified analogue. The synthesized material could be applied in thin film organic solar cell devices.

Nutrition has a greater impact on bone strength than exercise

One question that scientists and fitness experts alike would love to answer is whether exercise or nutrition has a bigger positive impact on bone strength.

Penetrating the soil's surface with radar

Ground penetrating radar measures the amount of moisture in soil quickly and easily. Researchers' calculations from the data informs agricultural water use and climate models.

Paternal transmission of epigenetic memory via sperm

Studies of human populations and animal models suggest that a father's experiences such as diet or environmental stress can influence the health and development of his descendants. How these effects are transmitted across generations, however, remains mysterious. A new study in the roundworm C. elegans documents the transmission via sperm of epigenetic marks that are both necessary and sufficient to guide proper development of germ cells in the offspring.

Sex or food? Decision-making in single-cell organisms

Unicellular diatoms are able to adapt their behavior to different external stimuli based on an evaluation of their own needs. In experiments, Seminavis robusta diatoms directed their orientation either towards nutrient sources or mating partners, depending on the degree of starvation and the need to mate.

New understanding of Mekong River incision

An international team of earth scientists has linked the establishment of the Mekong River to a period of major intensification of the Asian monsoon during the middle Miocene, about 17 million years ago, findings that supplant the assumption that the river incised in response to tectonic causes.

The science of sustainability

Can humans drive economic growth, meet rising demand for food, energy and water, and make significant environmental progress? The short answer is 'yes,' but it comes with several big 'ifs.' New research shows that we can put the world on a path to sustainability if we make significant changes within the next 10 years.

New method to address deep-seated biases in science

A new statistical method that tests for equivalence, rather than difference, has a role to play in dismantling gender and publication biases in science. The authors believe the technique has broad applicability across disciplines and can help remove publication bias against ''negative results,'' opening the door to a broader investigation of natural phenomena.

Letting nature take its course: Wolves in Yellowstone National Park

Since the reintroduction of wolves to Yellowstone National Park in 1995, the park's ecosystem has become a deeply complex and heterogeneous system, aided by a strategy of minimal human intervention. The new study is a synthesis of 40 years of research on large mammals in Yellowstone National Park.



 
 

 

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