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Graphene-based wearables for health monitoring, food inspection and night vision

Scientists have developed dozens of new graphene-based prototypes. These technologies aim to turn mobile phones into life saving devices.

Genetic vulnerability to menthol cigarette use

A genetic variant found only in people of African descent significantly increases a smoker's preference for cigarettes containing menthol, a flavor additive. The variant of the MRGPRX4 gene is five to eight times more frequent among smokers who use menthol cigarettes than other smokers. The multi-ethnic study is the first to look across all genes to identify genetic vulnerability to menthol cigarettes.

Drug to rejuvenate muscle cells

Researchers have developed a promising drug that has proven to significantly increase muscle size, strength and metabolic state in aged mice, according to a new study.

Open-science model for drug discovery expands to neurodegenerative diseases

Parkinson's disease and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis are the newest frontiers for open science drug discovery, a global movement led by academic scientists that puts knowledge sharing and medication affordability ahead of patents and profits.

Hope for fighting disease known as Ebola of frogs

Despite widespread infection, some frog populations are surviving a deadly disease that is the equivalent of humankind's Ebola virus. The reason -- genetic diversity.

The prospects of American strawberries

Researchers have embarked on an academic journey designed to generate an effective guideline essential for research, policy, and marketing strategies for the strawberry industry across the country, and to enable the development of general and region-specific educational and production tools.

Patients' own cells could be the key to treating Crohn's disease

A new technique using patients' own modified cells to treat Crohn's disease has been proven to be effective in experiments using human cells, with a clinical trial of the treatment expected to start in the next six months.

Tidal tails: The beginning of the end of an open star cluster

In the course of their life, open star clusters continuously lose stars to their surroundings. The resulting swath of tidal tails provides a glimpse into the evolution and dissolution of a star cluster. Thus far only tidal tails of massive globular clusters and dwarf galaxies have been discovered in the Milky Way system. In open clusters, this phenomenon existed only in theory. Researchers have now finally verified the existence of such a tidal tail in the star cluster closest to the Sun, the Hyades. An analysis of measurements from the Gaia satellite led to the discovery.

Bioengineers create ultrasmall, light-activated electrode for neural stimulation

Scientists have detailed a less invasive method of neural stimulation that would use an untethered ultrasmall electrode activated by light, a technique that may mitigate damage done by current methods.

Tide gauges capture tremor episodes in cascadian subduction zone

Hourly water level records collected from tide gauges can be used to measure land uplift caused by episodic tremor and slip of slow earthquakes in the Cascadia Subduction Zone, according to a new report.

A nearby river of stars

Astronomers have found a river of stars, a stellar stream in astronomical parlance, covering most of the southern sky. The stream is relatively nearby and contains at least 4000 stars that have been moving together in space since they formed, about 1 billion years ago.

Laminitis research to help save horses and ponies

Laminitis -- a complex, common and often devastating disease -- is the second biggest killer of domestic horses. Now a body of important research on it has been compiled.

Exercise might improve health by increasing gut bacterial diversity

Research has suggested that the efficiency with which we transport oxygen to our tissues (cardiorespiratory fitness) is a far greater predictor of gut microbiota diversity than either body fat percentage or general physical activity.

'Cellular barcoding' reveals how breast cancer spreads

A cutting-edge technique called cellular barcoding has been used to tag, track and pinpoint cells responsible for the spread of breast cancer from the main tumour into the blood and other organs.

'Seeing' tails help sea snakes avoid predators

New research has revealed the fascinating adaptation of some Australian sea snakes that helps protect their vulnerable paddle-shaped tails from predators.

From vibrations alone, acacia ants can tell nibbles from the wind

Researchers find that the ants of the acacia tree are tipped off to the presence of herbivores by vibrations that run throughout the trees when an animal gets too close or begins to chew. As a result, the insects begin patrolling the acacia's branches more actively. Remarkably, the researchers show, the ants don't react when the trees' movements are caused only by the wind.

On the origin of B1 cells

A new study may resolve a decades-old debate in immunology: researchers report that distinct progenitor cells are not required for the development of B1 cells. Instead, the team's experiments show that a B1-typical B-cell receptor can reprogram B2 cells into B1 cells, suggesting that B1 cells emerge as a consequence of their special B-cell receptors.

New live-imaging technique reveals cellular repair crew plugging leaky biological barrier

Suppose you live in a brick house and notice cracks in the mortar that let in cold air, rain and insect pests. You might call a brick mason to repair those leaks and to restore the barrier that keeps the great outdoors from getting inside.

Interval training may shed more pounds than continuous moderate intensity workout

Interval training may shed more pounds than a continuous moderate intensity workout, suggests a pooled analysis of the available evidence.

Immersive virtual reality therapy shows lasting effect in treatment of phobias in children with autism

New research shows that an immersive virtual reality environment treats 45 percent of children with autism, freeing them from their fears and phobias -- and that the treatment lasts.

Brain connections that disadvantage night owls revealed

'Night owls' -- those who go to bed and get up later -- have fundamental differences in their brain function compared to 'morning larks,' which mean they could be disadvantaged by the constraints of a normal working day.

Teens living in US states allowing medical marijuana smoke less cannabis

According to a large-scale study of American high school students, legalizing medicinal marijuana has actually led to a drop in cannabis use among teenagers. The study used the results of an anonymous survey given to more than 800,000 high school students across 45 states to calculate the number of teens who smoke cannabis.

It doesn't take much for soldiers to feel cared for

Caring texts sent to active-duty military had important findings in reducing suicide.

Study on measles transmission in China have implications for controlling the epidemic worldwide

A new study on the measles epidemic in China has far-reaching implications for eliminating the infection globally. Using a new model-inference system, the researchers were able to estimate population susceptibility and demographical characteristics in three key locations in China, in a period that spans the pre-vaccine and modern mass-vaccination eras.

New molecular blueprint advances our understanding of photosynthesis

Researchers have used one of the most advanced microscopes in the world to reveal the structure of a large protein complex crucial to photosynthesis, the process by which plants convert sunlight into cellular energy. The finding will allow scientists to explore for the first time how the complex functions, and could have implications for the production of a variety of bioproducts, including plastic alternatives and biofuels.

Improved RNA data visualization method gets to the bigger picture faster

Like going from a pinhole camera to a Polaroid, a significant mathematical update to the formula for a popular bioinformatics data visualization method will allow researchers to develop snapshots of single-cell gene expression not only several times faster but also at much higher-resolution. This innovation by mathematicians will reduce the rendering time of a million-point single-cell RNA-sequencing (scRNA-seq) data set from over three hours down to just fifteen minutes.

Tiny satellites reveal water dynamics in thousands of northern lakes

In a finding that has implications for how scientists calculate natural greenhouse gas emissions, a new study finds that water levels in small lakes across northern Canada and Alaska vary during the summer much more than was assumed.

Giving keener 'electric eyesight' to autonomous vehicles

Autonomous vehicles relying on light-based image sensors often struggle to see through blinding conditions, such as fog. But researchers have developed a sub-terahertz-radiation receiving system that could help steer driverless cars when traditional methods fail.

Study examines how compound damaged DNA to understand its connection to cancer

In an effort to understand how colibactin, a compound produced by certain strains of E. coli, may be connected to the development of colorectal cancer, researchers are exploring how the compound damages DNA to produce DNA adducts.

Better red than dread: Barrier keeps batteries safe

A layer of red phosphorus in rechargeable lithium metal batteries can signal when damaging dendrites threaten to create a short circuit. The strategy, which does not require a third electrode, could help bring more powerful lithium metal batteries to market.

Spintronics by 'straintronics'

Data storage in magnetic media is very energy consuming. Novel materials could reduce the energy needed to control magnetic memories thus contributing to a smaller carbon footprint of the IT sector. Now an international team has observed at the HZB lightsource BESSY II a new phenomenon in iron nanograins: whereas normally the magnetic moments of the iron grains are disordered at room temperature, this can be changed by applying an electric field.

Can we repair the brain? The promise of stem cell technologies for treating Parkinson's disease

Cell replacement may play an increasing role in alleviating the motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD) in future. Writing in a special supplement to the Journal of Parkinson's Disease, experts describe how newly developed stem cell technologies could be used to treat the disease and discuss the great promise, as well as the significant challenges, of stem cell treatment.

Multitasking increases in online courses compared to face-to-face

The phenomenon of multitasking across three or four internet-connected devices simultaneously is increasingly common. Researchers were curious to know how often this happens during online education, a method of delivering college and even high school courses entirely via an internet-connected computer as opposed to a traditional face-to-face course with a teacher physically present.

Massive Bolivian earthquake reveals mountains 660 kilometers below our feet

Geophysicists used data from an enormous earthquake in Bolivia to find mountains at the base of the mantle's transition zone, located 660 kilometers below our feet. Their statistical model didn't allow for precise height measurements, but these mountains may be bigger than anything on the surface of the Earth. The researchers also examined the top of the transition zone (410 km down) and did not find similar roughness.

Delays in banning wildlife trade put hundreds of species at risk

From parrots to lizards, hundreds of animal species could be at risk of extinction because of a policy process that responds slowly to scientific knowledge, according to a new study.

Shaping light lets 2D microscopes capture 4D data

Researchers have created a method to design custom masks that transform 2D fluorescent microscopy images into 3D movies.

New tool for documenting injuries may provide better evidence for elder abuse cases

Scientists have developed the first standardized framework for clinicians to document physical findings on older patients for better evidence in abuse cases.

A weakness in a rare cancer that could be exploited with drugs

Researchers have identified a rare type of cancer cell that cannot make cholesterol, a key nutrient. By targeting this deficiency, scientists may be able to develop new strategies for treating the disease.

When research participation pays, some people lie

Offering compensation can be an important tactic to attract potential participants for enrollment in research studies, but it might come at a cost. A new study found that up to 23 percent of respondents lied about their eligibility to participate in a survey when offered payment, even small amounts.

Oldest Americans most focused on reducing food waste

The vast majority of Americans are paying attention to reducing food waste with the oldest being the most cognizant, according to the latest poll.

Ultra-lightweight ceramic material withstands extreme temperatures

Researchers have created an extremely light, very durable ceramic aerogel. The material could be used for applications like insulating spacecraft because it can withstand the intense heat and severe temperature changes that space missions endure.

Dog burial as common ritual in Neolithic populations of north-eastern Iberian Peninsula

Coinciding with the Pit Grave culture (4200-3600 years before our era), coming from Southern Europe, the Neolithic communities of the north-eastern Iberian Peninsula started a ceremonial activity related to the sacrifice and burial of dogs. The high amount of cases that are recorded in Catalonia suggests it was a general practice and it proves the tight relationship between humans and these animals, which, apart from being buried next to them, were fed a similar diet to humans'.

Hop to it: Researchers evaluate rabbits' evolved resistance to myxoma virus

Researchers have validated the role of specific rabbit genes in contributing to this acquired resistance.

Effective self-control strategies involve much more than willpower

It's mid-February, around the time that most people waver in their commitment to the resolutions they've made for the new year. Many of these resolutions require us to forego a behavior we want to engage in for the one we think we should engage in. In a new report, leading researchers in behavioral science propose a new framework that outlines different types of self-control strategies and emphasizes that self-control entails more than sheer willpower to be effective.

Lipoproteins behave 'almost like a tiny Velcro ball'

Setbacks in drug trials aiming to raise HDL have led researchers to reassess the particle's effects on heart health. A study combining proteomics and mouse genetics may help researchers understand researchers understand the proteins in the particle, how they get there and how they determine HDL function.

Most triggers for irregular heartbeat can be easily modified

A personal survey of patients with atrial fibrillatio, one of the most important causes of irregular heartbeats, has found that the majority of triggers for the condition are easily modifiable lifestyle choices, including alcohol, caffeine, exercise and lack of sleep.

Parents don't pick favorites, at least if you're a Magellanic penguin

Researchers wanted to know how Magellanic penguin parents in South America balance the dietary demands of multiple chicks. They found that when a Magellanic penguin parent returns to its nest with fish, the parent tries to feed each of its two chicks equal portions of food, regardless of the youngsters' differences in age or size.

Gravitational waves will settle cosmic conundrum

Measurements of gravitational waves from approximately 50 binary neutron stars over the next decade will definitively resolve an intense debate about how quickly our universe is expanding, according to new findings.

Philosophy: What exactly is a black hole?

What is a black hole? A philosopher shows that physicists use different definitions of the concept, depending on their own particular fields of interest.

New molecules reverse memory loss linked to depression, aging

New therapeutic molecules show promise in reversing the memory loss linked to depression and aging. These molecules not only rapidly improve symptoms, but remarkably, also appear to renew the underlying brain impairments causing memory loss in preclinical models.

Blockchain can strengthen the credibility of meta-analyses

Blockchain -- the technology behind the secure transactions of cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin -- can make it easier for researchers to conduct transparent meta-analyses in social science research where reproducibility is a growing concern.

Social threat learning influences our decisions

Learning what is dangerous by watching a video or being told (known as social learning) has just as strong an effect on our decision-making as first-hand experience of danger, researchers report. The results of the study can help to explain why we make irrational decisions.

'Lack of cleaning' in brain cells is central to Alzheimer's disease

An international research team has created a better understanding of Alzheimer's. They have shown that the cleaning system of the brain cells, the so-called mitophagy, is very weakened in animals and humans with Alzheimer's. And when they improve the cleaning system in the animals, the Alzheimer's symptoms almost disappear.

The language of conversation impacts on the 'synchronization' of our brains

Experts have shown for the first time that the way in which the activity of two brains is connected depends on whether the dialogue takes place in the native language or in a foreign language.

Platinum nanoparticles for selective treatment of liver cancer cells

Researchers recently demonstrated that platinum nanoparticles can be used to kill liver cancer cells with greater selectivity than existing cancer drugs.

Biocolonizer species are putting the conservation of the granite at Machu Picchu at risk

A research group has used a non-destructive methodology to determine the role of specific algae, lichens, mosses, cyanobacteria, etc. that may be causing exfoliation and delamination, which are degrading the Sacred Rock of Machu Picchu, one of the most important symbols in the Peruvian archaeological city.

How proteins become embedded in a cell membrane

Many proteins with important biological functions are embedded in a biomembrane in the cells of humans and other living organisms. But how do they get in there in the first place? Researchers have now investigated the matter.

Cell study sheds light on damage caused by aging

Some of the damaging cell effects linked to aging could be prevented by manipulating tiny parts of cells, a study shows.

Immunological scarring from celiac disease

Immune cells in the bowel of people who suffer with celiac disease are permanently replaced by a new subset of cells that promote inflammation, suggests a new study.

Orangutans make complex economic decisions about tool use

Flexible tool use is closely associated to higher mental processes such as the ability to plan actions. Now a group of cognitive biologists and comparative psychologists found out that the apes carefully weighed their options. To do so the apes considered the details such as differences in quality between the two food rewards and the functionality of the available tools in order to obtain a high quality food reward.



 
 

 

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